Digital Resources For The Ho Language

This page is available in both English and Ho (click to read the Ho version in Warang Citi alphabet. If you don’t have the font, download a Public Domain licensed font from here)

The Ho language is native to over 1.4 million people who live mostly in the Indian states of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal, and Bangladesh. Though Ho has historically been written in Devanagari, Bengali, Odia, and Latin alphabet, Warang Citi is the most accepted script that was created by Lako Bodra, a community leader from Jharkhand. The language has been identified as a vulnerable language by UNESCO.

Ho written in Warang Citi alphabet: ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚

There is currently an active Wikipedia Incubator project where Ho speakers can create and edit Wikipedia articles. The Ho Wikipedia is yet to go live but with more contributors joining here and contributing encyclopedic content will make this a reality. In general, more content on the Internet is extremely important to share knowledge with the native speakers.
Icon for Wikipedia links to pages in the Ho language (hoc).
Ho Wikipedian Mangu Purty has created a series of videos to help users to contribute to the Ho Wikipedia Incubator project. (downloadable version here)

1. Part 1: Creating an account on Ho Wikipedia Incubator project

2. Part 2: Settings, Display (downloading & enabling font)

3. Part 3: Input (typing in Warang Citi) and Editing Ho Wikipedia

We did a tutorial earlier to help Ho speakers read any web content typed using Warang Citi in Unicode (a universal writing system encoding).



  1. Everson, Michael. “Final proposal for encoding the Warang Citi script in the SMP of the UCS“. (2017) n4259-warang-citi_n3668-warang-citi โ€“ n4259.pdf. Retrieved September 10, 2017, from
  2. Warang Citi. Range: 118A0โ€“118FF. (2017) The Standard, Version 10.0 โ€“ U118A0.pdf. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from


We want to share our gratitude with Ho-language scholar and technologist Mangu Purty for the video tutorials and some of the other resources links, and students collective “Birbasa” (Veer Birsa Munda Ho Students Union Odisha) for the video tutorial that we created.

๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขฎ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ขผ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃž ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰

๐‘ขถ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ขธ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚

๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขฎ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‘, ๐‘ขฉ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ, ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ขท๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃš ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ“ 10 ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃš ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ„๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ. ๐‘ขก๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ขฆ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž, ๐‘ขด๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ‚, ๐‘ขฉ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ, ๐‘ขท๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ, ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ขฏ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ. ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ขฏ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ™๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃ™๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขบ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขท๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ. ๐‘ขฅ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ.

๐‘ขณ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ขฏ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ขฟ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ, ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‡๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ„๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ, ๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ. ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ขฟ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ– ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ. ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ขฏ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ– ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ.

๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขฟ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ– ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ขถ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ขธ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ขฟ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ– ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃŽ๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃš ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃŸ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ. (๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‡๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„๐‘ฃ)

1. ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‘ 1: ๐‘ขฟ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ ๐‘ขฆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‡๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ’ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ†.

2. ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‘ 2: ๐‘ขพ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ขฑ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃˆ (๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ’ ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‡๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‘)

3. ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‘ 3: ๐‘ขฆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ’ (๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃŠ ๐‘ขฏ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃš) ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ขจ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŠ

๐‘ขก๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃŸ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ’ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ขฅ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ’ ๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃš ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ–๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ.

๐‘ขผ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃž ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰:


  1. ๐‘ขถ๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃš ๐‘ขจ๐‘ฃŸ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ“. “Final proposal for encoding the Warang Citi script in the SMP of the UCS“. (2017) n4259-warang-citi_n3668-warang-citi โ€“ n4259.pdf. Retrieved September 10, 2017, from
  2. Warang Citi. Range: 118A0โ€“118FF. (2017) The Standard, Version 10.0 โ€“ U118A0.pdf. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from


๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ขฟ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃŸ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ๐‘ฃ†๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃž ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃŒ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ– ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ขถ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ขธ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚ ๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ–. ๐‘ขก๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ† ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ‘ ๐‘ฃŸ๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ ๐‘ฃ”๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃŠ๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃš๐‘ฃ‹๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ‘ “๐‘ขท๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ” (๐‘ขท๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃœ ๐‘ขท๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ ๐‘ขถ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ ๐‘ขน๐‘ฃ‰๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ขพ๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ€๐‘ฃ’๐‘ฃž ๐‘ขฅ๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃ“๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ขฉ๐‘ฃ‘๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃ) ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ“ ๐‘ฃŒ๐‘ฃ‰ ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃž๐‘ฃƒ ๐‘ฃ˜๐‘ฃƒ๐‘ฃœ๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ„ ๐‘ฃ—๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ•๐‘ฃ‚๐‘ฃ…๐‘ฃˆ๐‘ฃ–.